According to U.S. Census Bureau in September 2002, the Alabama portion of the Mississippi Territory in 1800:

Total population=1,250
White population=733
African-American population=517
Slave population=494
Free black population=23
Indian tribes were not enumerated. For more information on Indian tribes in Alabama, please see The Encyclopedia of Alabama.

Georgia formally cedes western claims for its southern boundary at the 31st parallel.

Louisiana Purchase from France gives U.S. immense new territory and port of New Orleans.

1803 .. 1811
Federal Road conceived and built connecting Milledgeville, Georgia, and Fort Stoddert, an American outpost north of Mobile.

1805 .. 1806
Indian cessions opened up to white settlement large portions of western (Choctaw) and northern (Chickasaw and Cherokee) Alabama.

West Florida, from Pearl River to the Mississippi, annexed by U.S. from Spain.

According to a U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002, the Alabama portion of the Mississippi Territory in 1810:

Total Population=9,046
White population=6,422
African-American population = 2,624
Slave population=2,565
Free black population=59
Indian tribes were not enumerated. For more information on Indian tribes in Alabama, please see The Encyclopedia of Alabama.

1811 .. 1812
Schools established at St. Stephens (Washington Academy, 1811) and Huntsville (Green Academy, 1812).

1811 .. 1816
Newspapers established in Mobile (Centinel, May 23, 1811; Gazette, 1812) and Huntsville (Alabama Republican, 1816).

1812 .. 1815
War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain.

April 1813: U.S. annexes West Florida, from the Pearl River to the Perdido River, from Spain; Spanish surrender Mobile to American forces (April 15).

September 15, 1814: British attack on Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point fails, prompting them to abandon plans to capture Mobile and turn towards New Orleans.

February 11, 1815: British forces take Fort Bowyer on return from defeat at New Orleans, then abandon upon learning that the war is over.

1813 .. 1814
Creek Indian War, a part of the War of 1812, fought largely within the boundaries of present-day Alabama. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee becomes a military hero as he leads U.S. forces against the "Red Stick" Creeks.
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July 27, 1813: Battle of Burnt Corn Creek

August 30, 1813: Fort Mims Massacre
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November 3, 1813: Battle of Tallushatchee

November 9, 1813: Battle of Talladega

November 12, 1813: The Canoe Fight
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November 18, 1813: Hillabee Massacre

November 29, 1813: Battle of Autosse

December 23, 1813: Battle of Holy Ground (Econochaca)

January 22, 1814: Battle of Emuckfau Creek

January 24, 1814: Battle of Enitachopco

January 27, 1814: Battle of Calabee Creek

March 27, 1814: Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka)
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August 9, 1814: Treaty of Fort Jackson finalized; 23 million acres of Creek territory ceded to the United States, opening up half of the present state of Alabama to white settlement.
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March 3: The Alabama Territory is created when Congress passes the enabling act allowing the division of the Mississippi Territory and the admission of Mississippi into the union as a state.

Janurary 19: The first legislature of the Alabama Territory convenes at the Douglass Hotel in the territorial capital of St. Stephens.

The Alabama, the area's first steamboat, constructed in St. Stephens.

Cedar Creek Furnace, the state's first blast furnace and commerical pig-iron producer, established in present-day Franklin County.

November 21: Cahaba designated by the territorial legislature as Alabama's state capital. Huntsville would serve temporarily as state capital.

March 2: President Monroe signs the Alabama enabling act.
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July 5 - August 2: Constitutional Convention meets in Huntsville and adopts state constitution.

September 20-21: The first general election for governor, members of Congress, legislators, court clerks, and sheriffs is held as specified by state constitution. Territorial governor William Wyatt Bibb is elected the state's first governor.
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October 25 - December 17: General Assembly [legislature] meets in Huntsville while the Cahaba capitol is constructed.

October 28: Legislature elects William Rufus King and John W. Walker as Alabama's first U.S. senators.

December 14: Alabama enters Union as 22nd state.
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According to U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002, 1820 Federal Census:

State population=127,901
White population=85,451
African-American population=42,450
Slave population=41,879
Free black population=571
Urban population=n/a
Rural population=n/a
Indian tribes were not enumerated. For more information on Indian tribes in Alabama, please see The Encyclopedia of Alabama.

May 8: The Alabama Supreme Court, composed of Alabama's circuit court judges, convenes for the first time.

July 10: Gov. William Wyatt Bibb dies as a result of injuries received in a riding accident. His younger brother Thomas Bibb, president of the state senate, automatically becomes governor, as required by the state constitution

October 22: The steamboat Harriet reaches Montgomery after ten days of travel from Mobile. This was the first successful attempt to navigate so far north on the Alabama River, and it opened river trade between Montgomery and Mobile.

December: Legislature charters Athens Female Academy, which later becomes Athens State University.

French general and American Revolution hero, the Marquis de Lafayette, tours Alabama at Gov. Israel Pickens' invitation.

Capital moved to Tuscaloosa.

According to U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002,
1830 Federal Census:

State population=309,527
White population=190,406
African-American population=119,121
Slave population=117,549
Free black population=1,572
Urban population=3,194
Rural population=306,333
Indian tribes were not enumerated. For more information on Indian tribes in Alabama, please see The Encyclopedia of Alabama.

January 19: LaGrange College chartered by legislature; eventually becomes the University of North Alabama. The college actually opened its doors to students on January 11, 1830.

1830 .. 1838
President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Bill approved by Congress (1830); land cession treaties follow between the U.S. and each of the Indian peoples with a presence in Alabama, each of whom cede their remaining lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for western lands.

September 27, 1830: Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (Choctaw)

March 24, 1832: Treaty of Cusseta (Creek)

October 20, 1832: Treaty of Pontotoc (Chickasaw)

December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota (Cherokee)

May 1838: Alabama Indians moved to the western lands in the "Trail of Tears".
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Nat Turner slave insurrection in Virginia.

April 18: University of Alabama formally opens its doors.

Bell Factory (Madison County), state's first textile mill, chartered by legislature.

June 12: Alabama's first railroad, the Tuscumbia Railway, opens, running the two miles from Tuscumbia Landing at the Tennessee River to Tuscumbia.
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November 12-13: A fantastic meteor shower causes this night to be known as “the night stars fell on Alabama.”
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Daniel Pratt establishes cotton gin factory north of Montgomery; his company town, Prattville (founded 1839), would become a manufacturing center in the antebellum South.

Alabama gold rush, concentrated in east-central hill country, begins; peaks the next year.

Dr. James Marion Sims, "the Father of Modern Gynecology," establishes medical practice in Mt. Meigs, then in nearby Montgomery (1840). He moved on to New York in 1853 to found renowned Woman's Hospital.

Texas War for Independence from Mexico.

1836 .. 1837
Second Creek War (Seminole War); Battle of Hobdy's Bridge last Indian battle in Alabama (1837).

January 7: Judson Female Institute, a Baptist college, opens in Marion; renamed Judson College in 1903.

January 26: State prison established by legislature; first convict incarcerated in 1842.

According to U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002, 1840 Federal Census:
State population=590,756
White population=335,185
African-American population=255,571
Slave population=253,532
Free black population=2,039
Urban population=12,672
Rural population=578,084.

Methodist Episcopal Church, South, established as Methodists split nationally over sectional issues.

1845 .. 1848
U.S. annexes Texas; war with Mexico follows. Alabamians volunteered in large numbers to fight, but only the 1st Alabama regiment, a battalion, and several independent companies actually were received into federal service.

January 21: Legislature selects Montgomery as new capital; begins its first session there December 6, 1847.
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December 14: On the thirtieth anniversary of statehood the capitol in Montgomery is destroyed by fire. Construction of new capitol completed in 1851.
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According to U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002, 1850 Federal Census:
State population=771,623.
White population=426,514
African-American population=345,109
Slave population=342,844
Free black population=2,265
Urban population=35,179
Rural population=736,444
Cotton production in bales=564,429
Corn production in bushels=28,754,048
Number of manufacturing establishments=1,026.

February 6: Alabama Insane Hospital established at Tuscaloosa; received first patient in 1861. Its first director, Dr. Peter Bryce, became renowned for his innovative and humane treatment of patients.

Running on ticket with Democratic presidential nominee Franklin Pierce, Alabama Senator William Rufus King is elected Vice President of United States. Inaugurated March 24, 1853, in Cuba, where he had gone to recover his failing health, King died April 18, 1853, at home in Selma, never formally serving as Vice President.

February 15: Alabama Public School Act creates first state-wide education system by providing funding for schools and establishing office of State Superintendent of Education.
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Alabama Coal Mining Company begins first systematic underground mining in the state near Montevallo.

East Alabama Male College established at Auburn by Methodists; evolved into Auburn University.

October 4: Alabama School for the Deaf founded in Talladega; evolved into the state-supported Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind.
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According to U.S. Census Bureau Report in September 2002, 1860 Federal Census:
State population=964,201.
White population=526,271
African-American population=437,770
Slave population=435,080
Free black population=2,690
Urban population=48,901
Rural population=915,300
Cotton production in bales=989,955
Corn production in bushels=33,226,282
Number of manufacturing establishments=1,459.
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November: Abraham Lincoln, Republican candidate (although not on Alabama ballot), elected President of the U.S.

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